Biodiversity

Friday, May 12, 2006

DINOSAURS WERE WARM BLOODED ANIMALS

Many years ago, “different scientists started to search for evidence showing that dinosaurs were warm blooded. The evidence used included the way dinosaurs stood straight-legged like mammals, the big rib cages that could have held mammal-like hearts and lungs, and bones that had channels for quick blood circulation as found in the bones of the warm-blooded animals” (Payne 1999). Dinosaurs were very unique creature.

Scientists have determined the “extremities of temperature using bone isotopes. The results from the well preserved Tyrannosaurus bones suggested that its body was maintained within four degree Celsius. The temperatures uniformity with relatively high metabolism rate similar to known warm blooded animals" (Barrick and Showers 1994). “The studies of tiny dinosaur baby bones in hadrosaur were conducted by Jack. Results showed that Dinosaurs grow very fast. Horner showed that it reaches substantial size while still in the nest” (Morell 1987).

"Horner teamed up with Armand de Ricqles in an effort to investigate bone structure as a means to differentiate between endotherms and ectotherms. The two scientists did studies that analyzed the differences in bone structure during the growth series of a dinosaur, from embryo to adult. Through comparative anatomical studies of micro-thin sections of bone from dinosaurs, modern birds, and reptiles, the scientists found that both the dinosaur bones and the modern bird bones contained vascular canals within the bone, for blood vessels. This evidence suggested that there is a very significant similarity among bird and dinosaur bone, which indicated that the dinosaurs were warm blooded” (Morell 1987).

“Ruben also gave the evidence that dinosaurs were warm blooded animal. Ruben used seventy watt ultra lamp to study the fossil Scipionyx samniticus The fossil showed that the baby dinosaurs had a large intestine, liver, windpipe and muscles. The Ultraviolet (UV) light allowed Ruben and his team to see that the liver and guts of the Scipionyx were separated from the lungs and heart, which indicated the presence of a diaphragm, a layer of tissue found in mammals and modern crocodiles. "A diaphragm also allows for high levels of oxygen exchange" (Chang 1999).

“Examination of dinosaur fossils seemed to suggest they were indeed warm blooded. The remains of microscopic holes in the bone seemed to indicate tiny blood vessels had been trapped by the rapid growing bone tissue. The animal that grows fast is warm blooded” (Krystek 1996).

Furthermore, “evidence for rapid dinosaur growth was also being found in the microscopic structure of the bones. The bones of the dinosaurs were reached in the passage ways known as Halverson canals that transport nutrient laden blood to the cells that lay new bone. The fast growing bones of warm blooded mammals have the same high density of Halverson canals, whereas the slow-growing bones of cold blooded reptiles have far fewer” (Morell 1987).

“Beverly Eschberge believed that dinosaur have been only the warm blooded animals due to the structure of the bone and histology, growth rates, predator to prey ratios speed and agility, rate of evolution, similarities with birds as well as insulation .Most of the dinosaur bones which have been studied appear like the bones of modern ectodermic” (Eschberge 2001).

“Dr Russell, a paleontologist of North Carolina State University has indicated that the images of its chest which has enhanced suggested that it was a four chambered double pump heart with a single systemic aorta. The heart was more similar to of birds or mammals than reptile. ‘Willo’ fossilized heart suggested that the circulatory system was more advanced than that of the heart of reptiles. Longer periods of high activity were one of the vital aspects of warm blooded” (Eschberge 2001).

Evidence indicated that “dinosaurs were very active and they were able to move in high speed” (Eschberge 2001). The findings by “Reuben indicated the presence of a diaphragm, a layer of tissue found in mammals” (Chang 1999). “The way dinosaurs stood straight-legged live mammals. The bones that contained channels for quick blood circulation as found in warm blooded animals” (Eschberge 2001). The evidence which have been provided by scientists clearly indicates that the dinosaurs were warm blooded animals.

References:

1. Barrick R and Shower W.1994. Bones isotopes [Internet] Science; 2006 May 17, 15:04 UTC [cited 2006, May 16] Available from: http://www.dinoruss.org/de_4/5c52015.htm

2. Chang G. 1999. Dinosaurs were hybrid of cold-blooded, warm-blooded animals [Internet] Bell Globe media; 2006 May 09, 11:30 UTC [cited 2006, May 10] Available from: http://www.exn.ca/Html/Templates/topicpage.cfm?ID=19990122-51&Topic=Dinosaur

3. Payne J. 19Were dinosaurs warm-blooded or cold- blooded?[Internet] Kinetosaurs; 2006 May 09, 11:20 UTC [cited 2006, May 10] http://www.childrensmuseum.org/special_exhibits/kinetosaur/e2.html#q2

4. Eschberge B. 2001. Dinosaurs: warm or cold-blooded [Internet] 2006 May 09, 11:30 UTC [cited 2006, May 10] Available from:
http://www.priweb.org/ed/ICTHOL/ICTHOL04papers/13.htm

5. George J.1997. The isotopes in their bones suggest that dinosaurs were warm blooded [Internet] Onscience; 2006 May 09, 14:30 UTC [cited 2006, May 10] Available from: http://www.txtwriter.com/onscience/Articles/dinoblood.html

6. Discovery Channel (1997) Bird-like dinosaur found in Argentina [Internet] Onscience; 2006 May 09, 15:03 UTC [Cited 2006, May 10] Available from: http://www.exn.ca/Html/Templates/topicpage.cfm?ID=19970521-02&Topic=Dinosaur

7. Krystek L. 1996. An ultra attack: Did it kill in cold blood [Internet] Hot and cold running dinosaurs; 2006 May 17, 15:04 UTC [cited 2006, May 17] Available from:http://unmuseum.mus.pa.us/colddino.htm

8. Morell V.1987. Were Dinosaurs warm-blooded? Evidence supporting the claim that dinosaurs were warm blooded from strongest to weakest [internet] Essay and papers for students; 2006 May 07, 11:30 UTC [cited 2006, May 10] Available from: http://www.cheathouse.com/essay/essay_view.php?p_essay_id=12829

9. Wikipedia Contributors.2006. Dinosaurs. The free Encyclopedia [Internet] 2006 May 06, 08:30 UT C [cited 2006, May 08] Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/dinasaurs

Masiya Kedibone
CSIR PTA
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Cell No: 0732519071
Tel No: 0128412123
Fax: 0128423676
E-mail: kmasiya@csir.co.za
Web log: http://kedibone-kedimasiya.blogspot.com/

7 Comments:

  • You have not always used quotes to indicate copying more than four words verbatim from a reference. This is plagiarism.

    By Blogger Gwen, at May 23, 2006 12:45 PM  

  • On remarking, I still found plagiarism.

    By Blogger Gwen, at May 24, 2006 1:50 PM  

  • Your reference list has improved.

    By Blogger Gwen, at May 30, 2006 10:29 AM  

  • Thanks

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